Juni Der EU Austritt der Briten wird eine Auswirkungen auf die Online Casinos mit Lizenz in Gibraltar, der Isle of Man und Großbritannien haben. Da das Vereinigte Königreich die EU nun verlassen wird, hat die Europäische Glücksspiel Komission beschlossen, dass alle in England lizensierten Casinos. Der Brexit bringt die online Casinos mit "europäischer" Lizenz auf Gibraltar und Isle of Man in Schwierigkeiten. Müssen die alle nun auf Malta ins Exil?.
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However, there are risks that could impact on the profits of UK businesses. Most of the issues with Brexit that concern online gaming legislation are procedural, and should be solved.
Gibraltar , barring a miracle, will be leaving the EU. One potential problem with the situation is the freedom of movement for those in Spain who work in the gaming industry, and commute to Gibraltar daily.
This is likely, however, to be agreed with the British and the Spanish governments, on a separate arrangement and timescale to Brexit. But what about actual legislation?
The current legal framework concerning gaming in the EU is fairly loose. Different nations are allowed a lot of autonomy in this area.
Nations like the UK operate on a license-based framework, allowing quite a lot of freedom. With little to worry about licensing, it must be said however, that there are risks when it comes to Brexit that could affect UK and Gibraltar registered gambling companies.
Official figures in March indicated that EU immigration to the UK continued to exceed emigration, but the difference between immigration and emigration "net migration" had fallen to its lowest for three years.
Research on the effects that have already materialised in the United Kingdom since the referendum results show that the referendum result pushed up UK inflation by 1.
According to a Financial Times analysis, the Brexit referendum results had by December reduced national British income by between 0.
There is overwhelming or near-unanimous agreement among economists that leaving the European Union will adversely affect the British economy in the medium- and long-term.
However, there is substantial uncertainty over how large the effect will be, with plausible estimates of the cost ranging between 1 and 10 percent of the UK's income per capita.
Most economists, including the UK Treasury, argue that being in the EU has a strong positive effect on trade and as a result the UK's trade would be worse off if it left the EU.
Due to their longstanding trade integration with the UK, Irish regions have levels of Brexit exposure, which are similar to those of the UK regions with the lowest levels of exposure, namely London and northern parts of Scotland.
Meanwhile, the other most risk-exposed EU regions are all in southern Germany, with levels of risk which are typically half that of any UK or Irish region, and one third of that displayed by many UK regions.
There is also a very noticeable economic geography logic to the levels of exposure with north-western European regions typically being the most exposed to Brexit, while regions in southern and eastern Europe are barely affected at all by Brexit, at least in terms of the trade linkages Former Governor of the Bank of England Mervyn King commented that warnings of economic doom regarding leaving the EU were overstated and that the UK should leave the single market and probably the customs union in order to gain more opportunities, which would lead to improved British economic performance.
Short-term macroeconomic forecasts by the Bank of England and other banks of what would happen immediately after the Brexit referendum proved to be too pessimistic.
On 5 January Andy Haldane , the Chief Economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England , said that the BoE's own forecast predicting an immediate economic downturn due to the referendum result was inaccurate and noted strong market performance immediately after the referendum,    although some have pointed to prices rising faster than wages.
Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority , currently based in London.
As suggested by the Scottish Government before the referendum,  the First Minister of Scotland announced that officials were planning an independence referendum due to the result of Scotland voting to remain in the European Union when England and Wales voted to leave.
Sturgeon called for a "phased return" of an independent Scotland back to the EU. After the referendum, First Minister Sturgeon suggested that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU,  though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.
This Act allows for all devolved policy areas to remain within the remit of the Scottish Parliament and reduces the executive power upon exit day that the UK Withdrawal Bill provides for Ministers of the Crown.
Aviation may be heavily affected. The EU has rules allowing its airlines to fly anywhere in the union, also domestic, which will not apply to the UK anymore.
The British airline EasyJet decided to relocate its headquarter. The EU also has treaties with many countries regulating the right to fly over, take off and land there.
Unless permission or new treaties with the UK are made, aviation to and from the UK may stop. In the event of a no deal Brexit the French government has said that trains in the Channel Tunnel may not be allowed into France.
Ferries will continue, but with obstacles such as customs checks. The Financial Times said that there were approximately international agreements, spanning non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.
A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market.
There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force. There is concern about whether the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland becomes a "hard border" with customs and passport checks on the border,  and whether this could affect the Good Friday Agreement that was seen as instrumental in bringing peace to Northern Ireland.
This has been opposed by the British government. There is freedom of movement for all EU nationals within the Common Travel Area and there are no customs or fixed immigration controls at the border.
Since , the border has been essentially invisible. It is therefore possible that the border will return to being a "hard" one, with fewer, controlled, crossing posts and a customs infrastructure.
Both the EU and the UK have agreed this should be avoided. We will not continue to guard the border for Britain if it's no longer in the European Union," indicating that the juxtaposed controls would end with a leave vote.
French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be "threatened" by a leave vote. Gibraltar is outside the European Union's common customs area and common commercial policy and so has a customs border with Spain.
Nevertheless, the territory remains within the European Union until Brexit is complete. During the campaign leading up to the referendum  the Chief Minister of Gibraltar warned that Brexit posed a threat to Gibraltar's safety.
After the result Spain's Foreign Minister renewed calls for joint Spanish—British control of the peninsula. In April , Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis announced that Spain hopes to sign off on a bilateral agreement with Britain over Gibraltar before October so as not to hinder a Brexit transition deal.
Talks between London and Madrid had progressed well. While reiterating the Spanish long-term aim of "recovering" Gibraltar, he said that Spain would not hold Gibraltar as a "hostage" to the EU negotiations.
Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany.
Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2.
In total, , jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU.
The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty.
According to the Lisbon Treaty , Council of the EU decisions made by qualified majority voting can only be blocked if at least four members of the Council form a blocking minority.
This rule was originally developed to prevent the three most populous members Germany, France, Britain from dominating the Council of the EU.
With Brexit, the EU would lose its second-largest economy, the country with the third-largest population and "the financial capital of the world", as the German newspaper Münchner Merkur put it.
Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: The departure of the UK is expected to have a major effect on the EU.
The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled leading to speculation that it could enable the other EU countries to enforce specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.
The EU will need to decide on the revised apportionment of seats in the European Parliament in time for the next European Parliament election, expected to be held in June , when the United Kingdom's 73 MEPs will have vacated their seats.
In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.
Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.
The combined EU fishing fleets land about 6 million tonnes of fish per year,  of which about 3 million tonnes are from UK waters.
The UK government announced in July that it would end the convention in Loss of access to UK waters will particularly affect the Irish fishing industry which obtains a third of its catch there.
The policy is generally considered a disadvantage to fish-rich countries and is a major reason why Norway and Iceland are not members.
Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article German foreign secretary Frank-Walter Steinmeier met Britain's foreign secretary Boris Johnson on 4 November ; Johnson stressed the importance of British-German relationships, whereas Steinmeier responded that the German view was that the UK should have voted to stay in the EU and that the German priority now was to preserve the remaining union of 27 members.
There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice. A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental.
Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".
On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead.
These consist of an end to European Court of Justice jurisdiction, withdrawal from the single market with a "comprehensive free-trade agreement" replacing this, a new customs agreement excluding the common external tariff and the EU's common commercial policy , an end to free movement of people , co-operation in crime and terrorism, collaboration in areas of science and technology, engagement with devolved administrations, maintaining the Common Travel Area with Ireland , and preserving existing workers' rights.
She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.
The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".
EU negotiator Guy Verhofstadt , the European parliament's chief negotiator, said that: That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.
An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".
Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.
Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.
The results of these polls are shown in the table below. There have also been opinion polls on how people would vote in a second referendum on the same question.
On 6 July , the UK Cabinet agreed a statement at Chequers that set out a proposal for the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union ,  following which two members of the Cabinet resigned.
She proposed a referendum with three options: Voters would be asked to mark a first and second preference using the supplementary vote system.
If there were no majority for any particular option among first-preference votes, the third-placed option would be eliminated and second preferences would be used to determine the winner from the two remaining options.
The following table shows opinion polls that have been conducted on how people would vote in such a three-option referendum.
The table shows the poll results for a first round in which all three options would be available, and for a second round in which only the top two options in the first round would be available.
There have been opinion polls to gauge support for a second referendum on whether to accept or reject the final Brexit deal. The response of artists and writers to Brexit has in general been negative, reflecting a reported overwhelming percentage of people involved in Britain's creative industries voting against leaving the European Union.
Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.
It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.
This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.
These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March Rabbitman is a dark comic fantasy in which the events that lead to the election of a right-wing populist American president, who happens also to be a rabbit, and Britain's vote to leave the European Union, were the result of a series of Faustian pacts with the Devil.
As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.
Mark Billingham's Love Like Blood published 1 June is a crime thriller in which Brexit sees a rise in xenophobic hate crime. Post-Brexit Britain is also the setting for Amanda Craig 's The Lie of the Land published 13 June , a satirical novel set ten years after the vote to leave the European Union, in which an impoverished middle class couple from Islington in north London are forced to move from the heart of the pro-European Union capital, to the heart of the pro-Brexit countryside in Devon.
Brexit is also the baseline for Douglas Board's comic political thriller Time of Lies published 23 June In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.
Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. Stanley Johnson 's Kompromat scheduled for July is a political thriller that suggests the vote to leave the European Union was a result of Russian influence on the referendum, although Johnson has insisted his book is not intended to point the finger at Russia's secret services , but is "just meant to be fun.
An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.
In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an 81 minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.
In , newly elected Liberal Democrats leader Vince Cable criticised 'pop up' anti-Brexit parties formed following the referendum, saying of those groups' policies " From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
United Kingdom's planned withdrawal from the European Union. Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum.
People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum. Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out. Calls for second vote.
Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote. Other organisations campaigning for a second vote.
Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history.
Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Russian interference in the Brexit referendum.
European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.
Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union. This will be midnight Central European Time.
Department for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 18 January PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March". Retrieved 2 October The New York Times.
Retrieved 28 November The Economics of International Disintegration". Journal of Economic Perspectives. The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.
Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.
Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 24 June The Brexit vote two years ago has damaged the UK economy, as a weaker pound has squeezed household incomes and uncertainty has hit investment.
Retrieved 21 November The output cost of the Brexit vote". Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 29 September National Institute Economic Review.
Oxford Review of Economic Policy. Retrieved 25 June The what, when, and why of "Brexit " ". Oxford University Press, March Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 18 March What are the options?
Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 6 October House of Commons Library. Retrieved 15 February The media have labelled this as an 'exit bill' or 'divorce bill', the EU see it as a matter of 'settling the accounts'.
The issue has been discussed in the first phase of Brexit negotiations under the title of the 'single financial settlement' the settlement.
Retrieved 31 August David Lidington warns EU that Chequers plan is only alternative to no-deal". Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 26 October Army of Remainers will go door-to-door in bid to overturn EU exit".
There's never been a better time to be British". De Gaulle says "non" to Britain — again". Retrieved 9 March Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Retrieved 25 February Britain joins the EEC". Labour votes to leave the EEC". For this reason and for the practical reasons discussed further below , the Blocking Regulation was widely considered not to be successful when first introduced in the s to counter U.
This phrasing is deliberately broad, and is likely to encompass all actions or measures taken by the U. Department of State, the U.
Arguably, non-compliance with U. Under Article 2, an EU Person must notify the EU Commission within 30 days of obtaining information that the specified laws have affected, directly or indirectly, its economic or financial interests.
Although the Blocking Regulation contains no de minimis exception to this notification obligation, it is in most cases not clear how the EU Commission could evaluate the effect of the specified laws on individual companies for the purposes of monitoring enforcing the notification obligation.
Policing compliance with the notification obligation, thus, becomes almost impossible. Under Article 4, neither the EU courts nor those of the Member States may recognize or enforce foreign court or administrative decisions relating to the laws specified in the Annex.
It is not clear how Member States will interpret this obligation in the context of their own treaties and domestic laws on the recognition of foreign judgments.
In the past, however, Member States have very rarely brought enforcement actions to implement the Blocking Regulation, and there may be little appetite to do so in this instance.
In the former case, the implementation of that provision in practice may be particularly problematic given the general immunity of the foreign states.
The delegated regulation updates the Annex in order to counter the effects of the U. The amended Blocking Regulation will come into force by 6 August , provided there is no objection from the EU Council or Parliament.
The proposed new Annex refers to the U. These include secondary sanctions on investments into and other dealings with Iran relating to the energy, petroleum, oil and gas, shipbuilding, metals, financial and insurance sectors, and transactions relating to the Government of Iran.
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The current legal framework concerning gaming in the EU is fairly loose. Different nations are allowed a lot of autonomy in this area. Nations like the UK operate on a license-based framework, allowing quite a lot of freedom.
With little to worry about licensing, it must be said however, that there are risks when it comes to Brexit that could affect UK and Gibraltar registered gambling companies.
The current uncertainty means that if the UK leaves, it will be harder for operators to assert their rights as businesses.
So it is important for businesses to watch developments in that area closely, in order to react to any potential change.
European cross-border co-operation in online gaming legislation is another aspect that might change, but not necessarily a great deal.
Articles 49 and 56 of the TFEU Treaty of the Functioning of the EU allow freedoms and protections for the consumer, including important issues like preventing gambling addiction.
The UK and Gibraltar will likely leave this treaty following Brexit, however these rights are also similarly decreed by organisations like the World Trade Organisation, which has no connection to the EU, therefore it is unlikely that legislation that prevents crimes like money laundering, will be affected.
For the time being, since a full Brexit is not expected until at least , it is important for online gambling businesses to be up to date to any changes in legislation.
Although, because a lot of legislation is not directly tied to the EU, do not expect a large reform and change to the gaming sector post-Brexit.
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Each of these offers have specific Terms and Conditions. However, around a third of contacts surveyed for the report expected there to be "some negative impact" over the following year.
In September , following three months of positive economic data after the referendum, commentators suggested that many of the negative statements and predictions promoted from within the "remain" camp had failed to materialise,  but by December, analysis began to show that Brexit was having an effect on inflation.
An estimate suggestsd Britain's economy is 2. The capital requirements of our largest banks are now 10 times higher than before the financial crisis.
The Bank of England has stress-tested those banks against scenarios far more severe than our country currently faces.
That substantial capital and huge liquidity gives banks the flexibility they need to continue to lend to UK businesses and households even during challenging times.
The Bank of England is also able to provide substantial liquidity in foreign currency if required. We expect institutions to draw on this funding if and when appropriate.
It will take some time for the UK to establish a new relationship with Europe and the rest of the world. So some market and economic volatility can be expected as this process unfolds, but we are well prepared for this.
Her Majesty's Treasury and the Bank of England have engaged in extensive contingency planning and the chancellor and I have remained in close contact including through the night and this morning.
The Bank of England will not hesitate to take additional measure as required, as markets adjust. Fears of a fall in commercial property values led investors to begin redeeming investments in property funds , prompting Standard Life to bar withdrawals on 4 July, and Aviva followed suit the next day.
On 4 October , the Financial Times assessed the potential effect of Brexit on banking. The City of London is world leading in financial services, especially in foreign exchange currency transactions, including euros.
Should the passporting agreement expire in the event of a Brexit, the British financial service industry might lose up to 35, of its 1 million jobs, and the Treasury might lose 5 billion pounds annually in tax revenue.
Indirect effects could increase these numbers to 71, job losses and 10 billion pounds of tax annually. But the situation may be different when it comes to the fund management industry, as British asset owners, notably UK pension funds , often constitute an incommensurate share of total turnover for German, French, Dutch and other Continental European asset managers.
This imbalance could potentially give Britain some negotiating leverage e. Christine Lagarde said, "Any deal will not be as good as the smooth process under which goods, services, people and capital move around between the EU and the UK without impediments and obstacles.
Our projections assume a timely agreement with the EU on a broad free-trade pact and a relatively smooth Brexit process after that. A more disruptive departure will have a much worse outcome.
Let me be clear: The larger the impediments to trade in the new relationship, the costlier it will be. She added, "The larger the impediments to trade in the new relationship, the costlier it will be.
If all the uncertainties were removed it would be better. It is bad for the economy to have this amount of uncertainty. Held in late July in Chengdu, China this summit of finance ministers of 20 major economies warned that the UK's planned departure from the European Union was adding to uncertainty in the global economy and urged that the UK should remain a "close partner" with the European Union to reduce turmoil.
While the G20 agreed that other world factors, including terrorist acts, were creating problems, Brexit was at the forefront of their concerns. In interviews while attending the G20 Summit, Philip Hammond , the UK's recently appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer , said the country would attempt to minimise uncertainty by explaining in the near future "more clearly the kind of arrangement we envisage going forward with the European Union".
He emphasised that "the uncertainty will only end when the deal is done" but hoped that the UK and the EU would be able to announce some agreement by late as to how the exit would be staged.
Hammond also reiterated previous Government comments indicating that steps would be taken to stimulate the economy including tax cuts or increased spending, though without specifics.
He expressed confidence in the FSB's strategies: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.
The Economics of International Disintegration". Journal of Economic Perspectives. Government of the United Kingdom.
Retrieved 8 June The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 11 August Brexit Predictions Were Wrong".
Fox News from the Associated Press. Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 24 June AP The Big Story.
Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 27 June The Economist Newspaper Limited. Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 2 October UK economy in a position of strength".
BBC News — Business. George Osborne has said the UK is ready to face the future "from a position of strength" and indicated there will be no immediate emergency Budget.
UK government shifts to damage control". Financial markets 'rattled' by Leave vote".Sie können aber auch sogenannte Put-Optionen erwerben, die sich jeweils gegenläufig entwickeln, mit denen sie also von Kursverlusten profitieren. Wahl in Japan Klarer Sieg für Abenomics. Selbst beim scheinbar harmlosen Pachinko spielt das organisierte Verbrechen mit. März hat die britische Premierministerin Theresa May offiziell Artikel 50 initiiert , der den Brexit-Prozess einleitet. Man muss nur die richtigen Leute in einem Zimmer versammeln. Ich brauche mehr Informationen. Dies bedeutet, dass sich die Steuerklassen ändern können, die Verfügbarkeit von Online-Spielautomaten reduziert werden kann und Visa für Auslandsreisen erforderlich werden. Das Wörtchen war ist nunmehr bittere Realität, denn die Briten selber haben durch das Referendum ihren Zugang zu eben jenem lukrativen Binnenmarkt mit einem Kreuzchen abgetrennt. Am Verhandlungstisch blieb diese Frage bisher ausgeklammert. Man muss nur die richtigen Leute in einem Zimmer versammeln. Was - angesichts der Dramatik dieses Themas - durchaus gern untergeht ist der Umstand, dass das Referendum an sich bereits zum Gegenstand von Wettspielen wurde. Der wirkliche Knackpunkt ist der Finanzplatz London. Einige Mitglieder wie das Vereinigte Königreich haben sich entschieden, ihre eigene Währung zu behalten, als sie der EU beigetreten sind.